By Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere
This e-book provides descriptions and examples of forty two universal casual fallacies: advert Hominem advert Hominem Tu Quoque attract the results of a trust attract Authority attract trust entice universal perform entice Emotion attract worry attract Flattery entice Novelty entice Pity entice acceptance attract Ridicule attract Spite attract culture Begging the query Biased Generalization Burden of facts Circumstantial advert Hominem Fallacy of Composition complicated reason and impact Fallacy of department fake challenge Gambler’s Fallacy Genetic Fallacy Guilt by way of organization Hasty Generalization Ignoring a standard reason heart flooring deceptive Vividness Peer strain own assault Poisoning the good publish Hoc Questionable reason crimson Herring Relativist Fallacy Slippery Slope specific Pleading highlight Straw guy Wrongs Make a correct
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Additional info for 42 Fallacies
Professor: “I’m sorry about the leg, Bill. ” The above example does not involve a fallacy. While the professor does feel sorry for Bill, she is justified in accepting Bill’s claim that he deserves a makeup. After all getting run over by a truck would be a legitimate excuse for missing a test. ” Example #2: “I’m positive that my work will meet your requirements. I really need the job since my grandmother is sick” Example #3: “I should receive an ‘A’ in this class. ” Appeal to Popularity Description: The Appeal to Popularity has the following form: 1) Most people approve of X (have favorable emotions towards X).
Example #2: God must exist. After all, I just saw a poll that says 85% of all Americans believe in God. Example #3: Of course there is nothing wrong with drinking. Ask anyone, he’ll tell you that he thinks drinking is just fine. Appeal to Common Practice Description: The Appeal to Common Practice is a fallacy with the following structure: 1) X is a common action. 2) Therefore X is correct/moral/justified/reasonable, etc. The basic idea behind the fallacy is that the fact that most people do X is used as “evidence” to support the action or practice.
Dave: “Have you forgotten last year? ” Bill: “You’re right. ” Bill: “Maybe. Remember how she showed that your paper had a fatal flaw when you read it at the convention last year…” Jill: “I had just about forgotten about that! ” This sort of “reasoning” has the following form: 1. X is old or traditional 2. Therefore X is correct or better. This sort of “reasoning” is fallacious because the age of something does not automatically make it correct or better than something newer. This is made quite obvious by the following example: The theory that witches and demons cause disease is far older than the theory that microorganism cause diseases.