A Brief History Of Saudi Arabia (Brief History) by James Wynbrandt

By James Wynbrandt

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The leader of the tribe or clan is the sheikh. The sheikh was depended on for wise counsel. He ruled by the consent of his group, and decisions were made with the input of the tribal council, composed of individual clan leaders. Tribes observed no higher authority and were dependent on their prowess as warriors and raiders to survive and prosper. Less able tribes could buy the protection of more powerful tribes. Each tribe had its own area, called dirahs or ranges, within which they claimed exclusive rights to pasturage and use of all wells.

She is said to have proposed to him. Muhammad was 25 when they married, and Khadija was 15 years his senior. She bore him six children, two of them boys. Neither of the males survived infancy, and only Fatima, his most beloved daughter, had children. ) Muhammad’s work in the caravan trade took him to Syria and Palestine, where he came in closer contact with monotheistic religions, giving him a basic, though imperfect, knowledge of Christianity and Judaism. An indication of the respect Muhammad was reputed to enjoy can be inferred from one of the traditions of an event said to have occurred when he was 35 years old, or around the year 605.

After leading them in prayer, Muhammad was taken to the seven spheres of heaven, where his mission on Earth was affirmed. From here, he also saw the suffering of those damned to hell and the paradise awaiting those who followed God’s will. It was during this journey that he received instructions that Muslims should pray five times each day. ” This latter reference was originally thought to mean heaven. But after the capital of Islam moved to Damascus under the 37 A BRIEF HISTORY OF SAUDI ARABIA Umayyad caliphs, the phrase “farthest place of worship” was reinterpreted as Jerusalem, former site of the Temple of Solomon.

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