The History of Medical Informatics in the United States by Morris F. Collen

By Morris F. Collen

This is a meticulously distinct chronological checklist of vital occasions within the background of scientific informatics and their effect on direct sufferer care and scientific study, providing a consultant sampling of released contributions to the sector.

The heritage of scientific Informatics within the United States has been restructured inside this re-creation, reflecting the transformation scientific informatics has passed through within the years considering 1990. The structures that have been as soon as completely institutionally pushed – clinic, multihospital, and outpatient info platforms – are this present day joined through platforms which are pushed by means of medical subspecialties, nursing, pathology, scientific laboratory, pharmacy, imaging, and extra. on the center is the individual – now not the clinician, now not the establishment – whose future health these kind of platforms are designed to serve.

A crew of world-renowned authors have joined forces with Dr Marion Ball to carry Dr Collen’s great paintings to press. those well-known leaders in scientific informatics, a lot of whom are recipients of the Morris F. Collen Award in clinical Informatics and have been acquaintances of or mentored via Dr Collen, conscientiously reviewed, enhancing and updating his draft chapters. This has led to the main thorough historical past of the topic possible, and in addition offers readers with a roadmap for the topic good into later within the century.

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Extra info for The History of Medical Informatics in the United States

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It soon became the standard language for scientific and engineering applications; by 1987 it was estimated that as much as one-fourth of the world’s available machine cycles ran with code generated by some form of FORTRAN [84]. COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) is considered by some to have been invented by Hopper when she worked on the Mark I and UNIVAC computers in the 1950s [101]. COBOL was introduced in 1960 by a joint committee of computer manufacturers, computer business users, and government and academic representatives interested in developing a high-level programming language for business data processing that would use ordinary English statements and be usable by any computer.

These consisted of a printed circuit board that carried the circuit elements, and USB connector to plug into a computer. Computer-stored databases were considered by Coltri [73] to be one of the most important developments in software engineering, equivalent to the heart and the brain of a modern information system. Defined by Wiederhold [281, 283, 285] as collections of related data organized so that usable data could be extracted, databases were described by Frawley et al. [104] as logically integrated collections of data in one or more computer files, organized to facilitate the efficient storage, change, query, and retrieval of contained relevant information to meet the needs of its users.

2 zettabytes of data were available in 2010 and this amount would be very much larger with the addition of genomic data. F. A. Kulikowski Computer data storage devices are required for both the internal primary computer memory storage and for the external secondary storage of digital data. Secondary data storage in the early 1950s used magnetic tape drives for the writing and reading and the external storage of data, since reels of tape were low-cost, especially for backup data storage. Later in the 1950s magnetic hard disc drives were developed for storing digital data on rotating hard plastic discs with a magnetic covering.

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