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Extra resources for A Kinematical Interpretation of Electromagnetism (1919)(en)(8s)
32 Chapter 2. The CMS software 2. The package supports modular physics analysis structures and thus facilitates team work. The complexity of todays and future analyses makes efficient team work of many physicists mandatory. The physics analysis code can be used consistently among different high energy physics analyses and experiments. This results in modularity of physics analyses when consequently realised with the PAX toolkit. The PAX toolkit provides a general, persistent event container model, in which physics objects like fourvectors, vertices and collisions can easily be stored, accessed and manipulated.
More explicitly this means that after having crossed a material block with thinkness 97 X0 there are 1e (∼ 36%) photons left, the rest being converted into e+ e− pairs. Or, in other words, that one X0 is 79 of the mean free path for pair production by a high-energy photon. The partition of the energy to the electron and positron is symmetric at low energies (Eγ ≪ 50 MeV) and increasingly asymmetric at high energies (Eγ > 1 GeV) . 1. 3 Electromagnetic shower 43 Simple shower models The development of cascades induced by electrons, positrons or photons is governed by bremsstrahlung of electrons and pair production of photons.
31) dt 44 Chapter 3. Shower Parameterisation in Geant4 and CMS where a, b are fit parameters. In addition to the longitudinal shower development, there is a lateral spread of the shower, since the particles are not only slowed down but also their original direction is changed. 33) α α being the fine structure constant, me the electron mass. 34 for Θ these two processes do not dominate the lateral shower spread and not long after the shower start (t > 1) multiple scattering becomes the crucial process for the radial shower development.