A reference grammar of Menya, an Angan language of Papua New by Carl Robert Whitehead

By Carl Robert Whitehead

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Extra resources for A reference grammar of Menya, an Angan language of Papua New Guinea

Example text

Vptvh-! `h! «,v,p,tv«=h md=x`p«! «l`p«! m`p«! ddp«=m«! ’ 71) poss head qual quant determiner …flp«! xldp«! v«flp«! gthxh! hrtdmc«flh shfl« dslpd-! ---m=p«! xldp«! v«flp«! gthxh!

In the majority of clauses in natural text (663 in this sample), there is not an overt reference to both S and O, other than by verbal affixation, and so three-term basic word order is not fully applicable. Where only one of S and O is overt, however, it is almost invariably before the verb, confirming the verbfinal pattern. Examples (17) and (18) represent the most frequent patterns for clauses in which both S and O are overtly specified. The exceptions to the SOV pattern are conditioned by pragmatic factors; topical entities are fronted or even extracted (left-dislocated) from the clause into the frame and any NP can be postposed after the verb either as an afterthought clarification of identity or for special effect.

O«j«! ht`pt! ---! l`pflp«! «tx«l`jhxh-! `o«j«! h=h=`pt! Í l`,p,m,p«! ’ Positive deverbalized forms can also be used adverbially, as in (31). 3 is that the deverbal form (whether positive or negative) is the head of a deverbalized clause that functions as a manner adverb within its matrix clause, even in the regular negative construction where the matrix is one of the generic verbs. This analysis is reflected in the bracketing in the top line of examples (31) and (32). 31) S Manr[Manr V] V hpt!

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