By Gaëlle Krikorian, Amy Kapczynski
On the finish of the 20 th century, highbrow estate rights collided with daily life. Expansive copyright legislation and electronic rights administration applied sciences sought to close down new different types of copying and remixing made attainable by way of the web. foreign legislation increasing patent rights threatened the lives of thousands of individuals worldwide residing with HIV/AIDS by means of restricting their entry to affordable accepted drugs. for many years, governments have tightened the grip of highbrow estate legislations on the bidding of knowledge industries; yet lately, teams have emerged all over the world to problem this wave of enclosure with a brand new counter-politics of "access to knowledge" or "A2K." They contain software program programmers who took to the streets to defeat software program patents in Europe, AIDS activists who compelled multinational pharmaceutical businesses to allow copies in their medications to be offered in bad nations, subsistence farmers protecting their rights to meals defense or entry to agricultural biotechnology, and school scholars who created a brand new "free culture" circulation to safeguard the electronic commons. Access to wisdom within the Age of highbrow Property maps this rising box of activism as a chain of ancient moments, techniques, and ideas. It gathers the most very important thinkers and advocates within the box to make the stakes and techniques at play during this new area noticeable and the phrases of highbrow estate legislation intelligible of their political implications around the globe. an inventive Commons version of this paintings may be freely to be had online.
Contributors: Ahmed Abdel Latif, Philippe Aigrain, Jeffrey Atteberry, Yochai Benkler, Yann Moulier Boutaing, Carlos Correa, Laura DeNardis, Sarah Deutsch, Peter Drahos, Hala Essalmawi, Rick Falkvinge, Sean Flynn, Vera Franz, Spring Gombe, Anil Gupta, Ellen 't Hoen, Charles Igwe, Eddan Katz, Kannikar Kijtiwatchakul, Gaëlle Krikorian, Lawrence Liang, Jiraporn Limpananont, James Love, Leena Menghaney, Viviana Munoz, Sisule F. Musungu, HeeSeob Nam, Chan Park, Eloan Pinheiro dos Santos, Achal Prabhala, Onno Purbo, Manon Ress, Caroline Rossini, Susan promote, Sangeeta Shashikant, Roberto Verzola, Jo Walsh
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Additional resources for Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property
Ahmed Abdel Latif, in his account of how the term “A2K” was chosen, explains that “at the conceptual level, knowledge, rather than information, is at the heart of the empowerment of individuals and societies. While information is certainly a prerequisite in the generation of knowledge, acquisition of knowledge remains the ultimate goal. ”108 The decision to articulate the movement’s demands in relation to knowledge was in part a response to perceived conceptual differences between knowledge and information.
The government can pay, as it often does, for example, with direct grants to scientists or artists or by the creation of financial or reputational prizes that can induce innovation. S. government funds certain basic scientific research or the creation of weather or mapping data. 47 So why, then, should we conclude that private intellectual property rights are superior to other systems of promoting creativity and innovation, such as direct government funding? Here, the image drawn from information economics is spun together with a narrative drawn from theories of the economics of private 28 kapczynski property rights in material resources (such as land) popularized in the 1980s and 1990s.
Knowledge” and “information” are also cast as highly complex phenomena that inevitably elude strict control or management. ) The domain of access to knowledge is thus pictured as a domain of unbounded, unboundable exchange. ”78 Ideals of openness and sharing, like those of the commons and the public domain, also align the A2K movement with the political values of self-determination and autonomy, as well as those of collective governance. As one open-source proponent puts it: Proprietary software increases the dependence of individuals, organizations, and communities on external forces—typically large corporations with poor track records on acting in the public interest.