Al-Ma’mun by Michael Cooperson

By Michael Cooperson

Аль-Мамун (786—833) — багдадский халиф из династии Аббасидов.Сын Харуна аль-Рашида. Мать Мамуна была персидского происхождения. После смерти отца халифом стал его брат Аль-Амин, а Мамун стал губернатором Хорасана. В ходе вспыхнувшей гражданской войны, Мамун в 813 г. захватил Багдад и воцарился. Привлек к управлению государством ученых и основал в Багдаде Дом Мудрости (Бейт аль-хикма), созданную в подражание старинной персидской академии Джундишапура.В 827 г. по его повелению (и при его финансировании) были проведены градусные измерения дуги меридиана в долине Синджар, осуществлён перевод труда Птолемея на арабский язык («Альмагест»); в 829 г. в Багдаде основана астрономическая обсерватория.

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Not surprisingly, Ja‘far’s protégé al-Ma’mun was later to gain a reputation for liberality. ) If Ja‘far taught him to spend freely, it was a useful lesson: there was no better way for a caliph to ensure the loyalty of his dependents than by displaying an extravagant concern for their welfare. They do, however, provide an account of the curriculum followed by his half-brother. Al-Rashid’s instructions to al-Amin’s tutor run as follows: Have him [al-Amin] read the Qur’an and study the reports [of historical events].

We [the Arabs] have the words, but they [the Persians] have all the ideas” (Ibn Abi Tahir, 87). Al-Ma’mun evidently took advantage of the translations. “Following the practice of ancient Sasanian monarchs,” says one source, he “devoted himself to the reading and intense study of ancient books, and attained expertise in understanding them” (Mas‘udi, ¶ 3453). Not all the ancient books were necessarily Persian, but some of them must have been. 050 25/02/2005 10:25 AM Page 33 EDUCATION 33 something,” which was also the title of a Sasanian work of advice dealing with court protocol, battlefield tactics, archery, polo, divination, and probably cookery (in the report, he is concerned with the correct way to serve sheep’s heads).

When the guest returned home, he would find that the debt had been paid or the property purchased on his behalf (sometimes with the caliph’s money). Not surprisingly, Ja‘far’s protégé al-Ma’mun was later to gain a reputation for liberality. ) If Ja‘far taught him to spend freely, it was a useful lesson: there was no better way for a caliph to ensure the loyalty of his dependents than by displaying an extravagant concern for their welfare. They do, however, provide an account of the curriculum followed by his half-brother.

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