By Ho-Won Jeong (eds.)
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22. For peacemaking, see F. 0. Hampson (1996, pp. 3-25) and C. A. Crocker and F. 0. Hampson (1996). 23 . In the same vein, a report published in India by the International Centre for Peace Initiatives (1997) acknowledges that 'conflicts, per se, can be constructive to the extent that they are agents of change. In some ways conflicts are inherent to the process of social development, state formation, and nation-building'. M. lgnatieff (1997) draws a similar conclusion in his latest book. 24. Applied to ethnic conflicts, the notion of 'security dilemma ' refers to a lack of trust among ethnic rivals, as a result of which each over-estimates the ill intentions of the other.
8. B. Boutros-Ghali reasserts: 'the primary condition for the engagement of the United Nations in post-conflict peacebuilding must be consent of the parties concerned', in Winrich Kuhne, p. x. Does Peacebui/ding Build Peace? 45 E. Bertram adds that at a minimum the government exercising power must give its consent, (Bertram, 1995, p. 388). 9. For the missions and objectives ofpeacebuilding, see Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (1996, p. 62); K. Kumar (1997); N.
73-85). Most observers believe that peacebuilding is more readily applicable after a civil war or conflict (hence the occasional use of the expression 'post-conflict peacebuilding'). However, the two outlooks are not incompatible insofar as, in practice, peace missions are frequently multidimensional in nature, and require the performance of all stages in an integrated manner. Indeed, peacebuilding can be conducted \>efore, during, and after other related measures. 3) Does peacebuilding require that the parties to a conflict give their full consent prior to initiating a mission?